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Heavy Game Cartridge Overview

(Note: some of these cartridges are or will be explored in full, in the knowledge base)

As the heading suggests, this article is simply an overview of heavy game cartridges as a full exploration of the heavy game cartridges merits a knowledge base all of its own.    Nevertheless, the intention of the following text is to get readers to think about various factors involved in heavy game killing. Once the mechanics of wounding and killing are understood, understanding the merits and limitations of the various heavy game cartridges becomes much simpler.

Shot placement

A basic truth of heavy game hunting is that if the hunter were to only ever head or neck shoot animals, a .308 Winchester rifle loaded with 147 grain military ball ammunition at 2720fps would cover most situations, especially if that ammunition is AP (armor piercing).   In fact the .308 loaded with full metal jacket military ammunition is not so different to several popular cartridges of old including the 6.5 Mannlicher loaded with 160 grain military ball, the 7x57 loaded with 175 grain military ball, the .303 and its 174 grain ball load and lastly the hefty 8x57 and its 200 grain load.
All of these cartridges were similar in that they employed full metal jacket projectiles, the 6.5 and 7x57 featured round nose projectiles, the .303 and 8x57 utilized pointed projectiles. All were utilized because the rifles and ammunition were cheap and readily available. The cheap full metal jacket ammunition just happened to produce excellent penetration. The modern 7.62 NATO does not boast the same high sectional densites or stable round nose forms found within earlier designs, but has been used with equal adequate success.

Each of these cartridges have at one time or another, been used to kill large and heavy game via head or neck shots (destruction of the upper central nervous system). 

In the U.S, hunters have had a greater choice of arms and ammunition due to having both the major arms and ammunition manufacturers at their back door.  Nevertheless, many U.S hunters would still consider the .30-06 to be the ultimate all around cartridge for game up to the size of the great bears. Regardless, it is important to remember one vital factor, that to use any small bore on large heavy game requires calm and careful shot placement with an accurate rifle. 
In the heyday of African heavy game hunting with military bolt action rifles loaded with military ammunition, many hunters were killed by their quarry after failing to destroy the central nervous system. Reasons for failure could have included poor choice of shot placement, poor shooting skills, adrenalin based human error, animal’s moving at the moment of the shot, rifle inaccuracy and even bullet deflection before striking the animal or during penetration. 
The problem with the small bores loaded with full metal jacket ammunition is that all of these produce narrow wounds.  The projectile either strikes the CNS or it does not.  If it doesn’t, the narrow wound, usually about .5” (12.5mm) in diameter is not sufficiently wide enough to initiate fast bleeding or severe trauma. If the .308 Winchester is loaded with soft point ammunition it is capable of producing around a 1” (25.4mm) diameter, fairly traumatic wound channel through heavy tissue but penetration is poor. Even if the lungs of heavy animals are damaged with a soft point bullet, it is nearly impossible to find signs other than an eventual small bleed at the nose of the animal after a minute or so. 

A homogenous copper expanding projectile has the potential to both expand while retaining up to 100% weight. However in the small bores, these bullets are still best utilized for CNS shots, producing wound channels of around .75” (18.5mm) in diameter when encountering large and dense tissue. This level of wounding is certainly greater than FMJ bullet wounding, but is still vastly insufficient for non CNS shots on heavy game.   
Some conclusions- any animal can be (and are) killed with small bores such as the .308 Winchester loaded with stout full metal jacket projectiles or stout hunting projectiles.  Such killing depends on exact shot placement. Any error may result in dire consequences. If the animal moves at the moment of the shot, it may receive a far less than fatal wound. For follow up shots, the small bores are not ideal as they cannot make use of the chest cavity of game as a target area. The hunter must either continue to place shots into CNS or seek an escape route should the animal decide to charge.
There are a great many folk using small bore cartridges on large and heavy game who have no understanding of rifle accuracy or terminal ballistics and only have a limited understanding of game anatomy. These hunters usually get close and keep shooting until the animal is down. Such hunters would never consider that they might be under gunned as they know little about other cartridges, only that a .22lr is for small game and that (as an example) the .308 is for big game.  Many farmers fit this description, not primarily interested in hunting, the rifle is just another tool on the farm and hunting is just another chore at the bottom of a long list of chores.

More Power

Although the small bores may be adequate for large and heavy game, they are most definitely not ideal, leave no room for shot placement error. The hunter simply cannot make use of the chest cavity of heavy game as a target area. By moving up in bore size and increasing bullet weight, the hunter is able to obtain wider wounding and, providing a suitable projectile is chosen, deeper penetration.  The wider the bullet, the wider the wound channel, the faster the bullet, the wider the wound channel.

The more power we adopt, the greater the potential target area. Nevertheless, one point that must be re-iterated is the need for consistent accuracy, regardless of power.  While it may seem that large heavy game animals present a large target area and lessen the need for an accurate rifle, this theory often fails in the field.  Animals partly obscured by scrub or herd bulls constantly weaving in and out of cows are just a couple of the obstacles which necessitate an accurate heavy game rifle. If the hunter is unwilling to do the range work and accurising necessary for optimum results, the heavy caliber will be no better than a smaller bore.

 .375 cartridges and the less common 9.3mm bore

The 9.3mm and .375 caliber cartridges have been thoroughly discussed throughout this knowledge base.  The main advantages of the .375’s, put simply, are that these are the mild recoilers of the heavy game cartridge family.  The 9.3mm caliber is also lumped in here although only with regard to the 9.3x64 Brenneke. The smaller 9.3x62 and .375 Whelen are both adequate heavy game cartridges but are very much at the low end of the power spectrum. 
Of my own research on large Bovines, it is apparent that heavy animals are susceptible to hydrostatic shock in the same manner as medium game, after all, a mammal is a mammal regardless of its size. The cut-off point on large Bovines is a minimum impact velocity of around 2600fps with no less diameter than either the 9.3mm or .375” firing a minimum bullet weight of 260 grains. Below this velocity, animals may show no sign of a hit unless the projectile strikes the CNS directly. 
On extremely heavily muscled or thickly skinned animals, shoulder shots with the 9.3mm and .375’s at impact velocities of above 2600fps can still fail to produce hydrostatic shock.  This is due to the bullet energy being dispersed throughout the shoulder muscle or hide rather than at the ribs and then outwards to the spine. A stout bullet is imperative for delivering deep shock when shoulder shooting heavily shouldered big game with either the 9.3mm or .375.   Also as can be expected, a heavier bullet fired from either a .416 or .458 caliber rifle at high velocity is more effective at delivering shock at a deeper level.
By aiming behind the shoulder, a high velocity 9.3mm or .375mm projectile impacting at velocities above 2600fps can pole axe an animal that would otherwise absorb shots to the shoulder with seemingly little reaction.  That said, the hind shoulder shot has a level of risk.  Although both the 9.3mm and .375’s are create wide wounds, rear lung bleeding is often slow, allowing animals to regain consciousness, rise to their feet and charge the hunter. 
The .375’s do not produce wound channels as wide as wider bores (where velocity is equal) but do produce clean killing with low recoil.  Because chest shots with the .375’s can produce delayed kills, both shot placement and multiple shot capability are important factors in success when using the .375 on heavy game.  As velocity is increased, the .375 caliber produces wider wounds and faster killing.  But, as velocity is increased, bullet choice becomes more critical as most projectiles suffer dramatic weight loss and severe loss of SD resulting in limited penetration. Along with this, recoil is increased substantially.  Both the .375 RUM and .378 Weatherby are excellent performers on heavy game- especially when loaded with the Barnes TSX projectiles but please be aware, my experience only stretches as far as large Bovines and not to such giants as Hippo, Rhino or Elephant, none of which I have any interest in pursuing. 
A small mention must be added here of a relatively new cartridge, the .375 Chey-Tac.  This is a specialized long range hunting cartridge based on the .408 Chey-Tac sniper cartridge/rifle system.  The .375 Chey-Tac is capable of firing 300 grain bullets above 3300fps and 350 grain semi-custom match bullets at over 3200fps.  As stated, this is a long range cartridge and very few of today’s hunting projectiles are capable of withstanding close range impact velocities generated by the Chey-Tac.
    Cartridge Bullet weight Muzzle Velocity
9.3x64 Brenneke 286 2650
9 3x64 Final.jpg
9.3x64 Imperial Metric 
A .496 12.6
B .507 12.9
C 17deg30’  
D .474 12.0
E .395 10.0
F 2.051 52.10
G .343 8.7
H 2.520 64.00
Max Case 2.520 64.00
Trim length 2.507 63.7

    Cartridge Bullet weight Muzzle Velocity
.375 H&H 300 2600
.375 Ruger
.375 Dakota
.375 Weatherby
300 2700
.375 RUM 300 2950
.378 Weatherby 300 3000
.375 Chey-Tac 300 3300

375 H&H Final.jpg
.375 H&H Imperial Metric 
A .532 13,51
B .513 13.03
C 12deg48’  
D .448 11.37
E .404 10.26
F 2.402 63.41
G .350 8.89
H 2.850 72.39
Max Case 2.850 72.39
Trim length 2.838 72.09

375 Ruger final.jpg
.375 Ruger Imperial Metric 
A .532 13.51
B .532 13.51
C 30deg  
D .515 13.08
E .405 10.29
F 2.179 55.34
G .305 7.74
H 2.580 65.53
Max Case 2.580 65.53
Trim length 2.568 65.23

375 Dakota Final.jpg
.375 Dakota Imperial Metric 
A .545 13.84
B .545 13.84
C 30deg  
D .529 13.43
E .402 10.21
F 2.061 52.32
G .400 10.16
H 2.570 65.27
Max Case 2.570 65.27
Trim length 2.557 64.97
375 Weatherby final.jpg
.375 Wby Imperial Metric 
A .532 13.51
B .512 13.00
C R.151  
D .492 12.49
E .402 10.21
F 2.396 60.85
G .301 7.64
H 2.860 72.64
Max Case 2.860 72.64
Trim length 2.848 72.

375 RUM final.jpg
.375 RUM Imperial Metric 
A .534 13.56
B .550 13.97
C 30deg  
D .525 13.33
E .405 10.28
F 2.38 60.45
G .358 9.09
H 2.850 72.39
Max Case 2.850 72.39
Trim length 2.838 72.09

378 Weatherby final.jpg
.378 Wby Imperial Metric 
A .582 14.73
B .582 14.73
C R.151  
D .560 14.22
E .339 8.61
F 2.340 59.43
G .371 9.42
H 2.908 73.86
Max Case 2.908 73.86
Trim length 2.896 73.56

375 CheyTac final.jpg
.375 Chey-Tac Imperial Metric 
A .640 16.25
B .637 16.18
C 22deg  
D .601 15.26
E .400 10.16
F 2.440 61.97
G .515 13.08
H 3.040 77.21
Max Case 3.040 77.21
Trim length 3.027 76.91
    Cartridge Bullet weight Muzzle Velocity
.408 Chey-tac  (.408”)


408 CheyTac final.jpg
.408 Chey-Tac Imperial Metric 
A .640 16.25
B .637 16.17
C 22deg  
D .601 15.26
E .438 11.12
F 2.440 61.97
G .515 13.08
H 3.040 77.21
Max Case 3.040 77.21
Trim length 3.027 76.91

The .416’s

Of the heavy game cartridges, those of the .416” family hold the middle ground. The .416’s obtain a balance of heavy bullet weight, wide frontal area versus ‘less than maximum’ recoil.  While the 300 grain weight is ideal in the .375’s for use on DG, the .416’s obtain optimum results with 400 grain bullets.  The .416 Remington is the smallest of today’s commonly available .416’s firing its 400 grain bullet at 2400fps and is one of the lighter recoiling cartridges of the true big bore family. Velocity is high enough to obtain disproportionate to caliber/ wide wounding on heavy animals out to ranges of beyond 200 yards while penetration is outstanding.   This cartridge does not produce shock on large heavy animals but does produce consistently traumatic wounding for clean and relatively fast killing.
The .416 Rigby is a very old cartridge which has really stood the test of time.  It was a good cartridge when it was introduced and remains so today. The big Rigby is also the parent case design of several modern magnums.  Velocity of the Rigby is not incredibly high however it is a well balanced cartridge with regard to power versus tolerable recoil.
The .416 Weatherby Magnum is a very potent cartridge.  Muzzle velocity is rated at 2700fps, high enough to obtain shock on heavy game at close range and with enough bullet weight to deliver shock through heavy hide, muscle and bone- that is, providing a stout projectile is used. This point should never be forgotten.

The .416” caliber is perhaps the most suitable candidate for building heavy game high velocity wildcat cartridges. This is simply because of the fact that to go smaller in bullet diameter puts too much stress on projectiles while a larger bore size generates too much recoil to both the shooter and the rifle bedding platform.
A last .416 that deserves a mention is the .416 Barrett. This cartridge was designed primarily to serve as a military, special operations sniper cartridge.  Created by U.S company Barrett Arms, this company is famous for their bolt action and semi-automatic .50BMG sniper rifles. The .416 is a hellbender, based on the .50BMG case shortened to 3.27” (83mm) and necked down to .416.  Muzzle velocity with a 400 grain custom match projectile is rated at 3250fps.  The .416 Barrett is currently popular with civilian long range shooters and hunters.
    Cartridge Bullet weight Muzzle Velocity
.416 Remington 400 2400
.416 Rigby 400 2600
.416 Weatherby 400 2700
.416 Barrett 400 3250
416 remington final.jpg
.416 Rem Imperial Metric 
A .532 13.51
B .513 13.03
C 25deg  
D .487 12.36
E .448 11.37
F 2.389 60.68
G .419 10.64
H 2.850 72.39
Max Case 2.850 72.39
Trim length 2.838 72.09

416 rigby final.jpg
.416 Rigby Imperial Metric 
A .590 14.99
B .589 14.96
C 44deg53’  
D .540 13.71
E .446 11.32
F 2.353 59.76
G .500 12.7
H 2.90 73.66
Max Case 2.90 73.66
Trim length 2.888 73.36

416 weatherby final.jpg
.416 Wby Imperial Metric 
A .579 14.70
B .582 14.78
C R.1.64  
D .561 14.24
E .444 11.27
F 2.345 59.56
G .392 9.95
H 2.913 73.99
Max Case 2.913 73.69
Trim length 2.901 73.69

416 barrett final.jpg
.416 Barrett Imperial Metric 
A ---- ----
B .797 20.24
C ---- ----
D .732 18.59
E .465 11.81
F ---- ----
G ---- ----
H 3.270 83.05
Max Case 3.270 83.05
Trim length 3.257 82.75

.404 Cartridges

The famous .404 Jeffery, now a century old, the .404 utilizes .423” diameter projectiles, somewhat similar in diameter to the .44 Magnum at .429”.  The traditional load for the .404 was, and still is a 400 grain bullet at 2400fps, identical in bullet weight/ velocity to the .416 Remington.  The case body of the .404 is rather steeply tapered.  The neck is exceptionally long and seems almost to extend halfway down the case, much like the .30-30 Winchester.  When this cartridge was used as a parent design for the modern ultra Magnums, it was very easy to increase capacity by simply moving the shoulder forwards, thereby increasing the body dimensions of the case while the neck was made much shorter.   The original .404 Jeffery is not a common sight anymore however it is a practical cartridge.  Like the .416 Remington, the .404 obtains a good balance of power versus tolerable recoil.
The most recent .404, is the .404 Dakota.  This proprietary cartridge duplicates the performance of the .404 Jeffery. Although a modern design, Dakota brass is expensive and somewhat rare in comparison to other cartridge options.
    Cartridge Bullet weight Muzzle Velocity
.404 Jeffery (.423”) 400 2400
.404 Dakota (.423”) 400 2400




404 Jeffery final.jpg
.404 Jeffery Imperial Metric 
A .537 13.63
B .544 13.81
C 9deg  
D .520 13.20
E .450 11.43
F 2.000 50.8
G .620 15.74
H 2.860 72.64
Max Case 2.860 72.64
Trim length 2.848 72.34

404 Dakota final.jpg
.404 Dakota Imperial Metric 
A .545 13.84
B .545 13.84
C 30 deg  
D .529 13.44
E .432 10.97
F 2.061 52.35
G .445 11.3
H 2.570 65.28
Max Case 2.570 65.3
Trim length 2.560 65

 .458 Cartridges

The largest of the big bores to be discussed within these pages are the .458’s.  At the slowest end of the spectrum are the .45-70 loaded to high pressures and the similar .450 Marlin, both are most usually utilized in Marlin lever action rifles. These two extremely mild recoiling (for their size) cartridges should never be under-estimated as heavy game cartridges regardless of the fact that neither was designed for use on heavy African game. 
The almost extinct .450/400 Nitro Express is yet another slow big bore, identical in performance to the .450 Marlin and modern .45-70.  The .450/400 NE sees very little use today, kept alive by a small handful of hunters for nostalgia- although it was once very popular.  
A huge advantage of the .458” caliber is its ability to create disproportionately large wounds at low velocity.  In comparison, at closes ranges of 150 yards or less, the .375 H&H firing a 300 grain bullet at 2600fps does not create a wider wound than the .458” levers firing 400 grain projectiles at 1900fps.  Of course the .375 H&H has a huge range advantage due to its flat trajectory. The main difficulties when using the slower .458”s on heavy game are finding suitable projectiles.  Traditional 400 grain soft point projectiles designed for the lever actions lack optimum sectional density and are far too malleable for deep penetration on heavy game while 500 grain bullets are simply too slow at .45-70/.450 muzzle velocities to create traumatic wounding.  The compromise is to use a non expanding hard cast projectile of 400 to 450 grains with a wide meplat- discussed further at the beginning of this book.  (add hyper link here)
The slow .458’s are certainly not as ‘effective’ as the high velocity .458”s but again, it pays to remember that slow as they may be, wounding is similar to higher velocity medium bores and providing range is short and suitable ammunition can be obtained, these are clean and reliable heavy game killing cartridges. 
The high velocity .458’s typically utilize either a 450 or 500 grain projectile to obtain adequate penetration with expanding projectiles.  Barnes make their mono metal triple shock bullet in .450 grains, an excellent bullet for any of the big .458’s.  For hunters wishing to utilize a soft point expanding projectile, the 450 grain Woodleigh and Swift bullets are suitable for the .458 Winchester Magnum, their heavier 500 grain counterparts suited to the Lott and .460 Weatherby. 
The .458 Winchester Magnum has received a lot of flak ever since its inception several decades ago.  To many experienced big game hunters, the .458 Winchester is neither fish nor foul.  The .458 must be loaded to high pressures to achieve its goal velocity.  There have in the past been complaints of hot weather causing severe pressure spikes resulting in jammed actions, a dangerous situation for the hunter having to make follow up shots. This problem does not occur so much anymore, whether the ammunition has been loaded to lower pressures/ velocities or whether Olin have changed powders I do not know but it must be stated that Olin’s traditional W760 powder is most definitely temperature sensitive.  
Yet another problem with the .458 Winchester was the weakness of the Winchester rifle stock design which was prone to split at the tang within a couple of hundred shots.  After market heavy stocks with internal reinforcing are one solution to overcoming this problem.  Another solution which is employed by CZ (Brno) is to have a second recoil lug dovetailed into the underside of the rifle barrel, the purpose being to spread recoil throughout the forend, rather than from the action alone.  The system works but should never be taken as a given.  If the bedding platform is not sound, including the extra recoil lug, the stock will still split and yes, this does occur in CZ (Brno) rifles from time to time regardless of their superior to Winchester design.
 Had the .458 Winchester been designed for a lever action rifle, most big bore lever action enthusiasts would have been over the moon.  Loaded to mild pressures, the .458 Winchester is about as much power and recoil as a lever action rifle and shooter can handle and would never be considered in the same light as it is in its bolt action rifle configuration. Unfortunately, such a combination can never be, simply because of the potential consequences of bolt action rifle ammo (pointed) being loaded into tube magazines and the likely result of detonation in the magazine under recoil. 
The .458 Winchester currently survives as a big game cartridge simply because of the availability of production rifles and factory ammunition.  Even at high pressures, muzzle velocities are not high in comparison to other modern heavy game cartridge designs and this translates into less traumatic wounding and a steeper trajectory than the competition. Still, this is a very authoritive cartridge out to moderate ranges and produces a high level of recoil.  Wounding may not be as fierce as the .458 Lott or .460 Weatherby but wounding is nevertheless wide and deep.
The .458 Lott is a very popular cartridge at present and for a variety of reasons.  Muzzle velocities for the Lott are high enough to produce extremely traumatic wounding out to and beyond 200 yards coupled with deep penetration.  At the same time, the Lott produces about as much recoil as many heavy game hunters are willing to bare unbraked.  The Lott’s muzzle velocities are achieved at mild rather than high pressures, an important factor for the travelling hunter who is likely to encounter high changes in climatic conditions.
The .450 Dakota is a potent .458 caliber cartridge based on the .416 Rigby case design.  Case capacity is near identical to the .460 Weatherby, the main difference between the two cartridges being that the .460 is loaded as fast as possible, while using maximum possible freebore to alleviate excessive pressures.  The .450 Dakota launches a 500 grain bullet at 2450fps and deep traumatic wounding is assured.  The .450 is less common than the .458 Lott and .460 Weatherby and will most likely remain this way due to the high cost of brass and rarity of Dakota rifles.
The most powerful, readily available heavy game cartridge is the .460 Weatherby Magnum.  For several decades this cartridge was the most powerful commercially available cartridge but today it is superseded by the .375 Chey-Tac, the .416 Barrett and the now publicly available .50BMG. Nevertheless, rifles and ammunition for the Chey-Tac and .50BMG are still somewhat of an oddity although the .460 Weatherby is not altogether common either. Firing a 500 grain bullet at 2550fps, the .460 delivers a serious blow- at both ends. In recent years, all .460 Weatherby rifles are factory fitted with a muzzle brake to reduce recoil.  
The .460 creates a wide and highly traumatic wound however muzzle velocity is not high enough to initiate hydrostatic shock on the largest of animals if heavy hide, muscle and shoulder bone absorb most of the projectiles energy. Therefore, regardless of its immense power, hunters should always expect a delayed kill on exceptionally heavy game with ordinary shoulder shots.   The .460 Weatherby cartridge case can be loaded to higher velocities than those given here while the use of a lighter 450 grain bullet helps lift velocities even further.  That said, few hand loaders (or even powder manufacturers) are willing to experiment with high velocity loads due to fearsome recoil.  The same can be said for the .375 Remington Ultra Magnum and .378 Weatherby, very few people push 300 grain bullets out of these combinations beyond 2800fps.   Regardless of whether the .460 can deliver ‘on the spot’ kills, out of all of the modern heavy game cartridges, the wide, deep wounding of the .460 ensures clean killing within the shortest possible time.
The tables below show not only the .458”s but also a few of the larger bores, up to .50BMG.
    Cartridge Bullet weight Muzzle Velocity
.45-70 (Modern rifles) 400 1900- 2000
.450/400 NE 3” 400 2050
.458 Winchester 450
.458 Lott 450
.450 Dakota 450
.460 Weatherby 450

45-70 final.jpg
.45-70 Imperial Metric 
A .608 15.44
B .505 12.82
C .480 12.19
D 2.105 53.47
Max Case 2.105 53.47
Trim length 2.093 53.17

458 Win Mag final.jpg
.458 Win Mag Imperial Metric 
A .532 13.51
B .513 13.03
C .481 12.22
D 2.500 63.5
Max Case 2.500 63.5
Trim length 2.488 63.2

458 Lott final.jpg
.458 Lott Imperial Metric 
A .532 13.51
B .513 13.03
C .480 12.20
D 2.80 71.12
Max Case 2.80 71.12
Trim length 2.788 70.82

450 Dakota final.jpg
.450 Dakota Imperial Metric 
A .582 14.78
B .582 14.78
C 30 deg  
D .560 14.22
E .485 12.32
F 2.324 59.03
G .500 12.7
H 2.900 73.66
Max Case 2.900 73.7
Trim length 2.890 73.4

460 weatherby final.jpg
.460 Wby Imperial Metric 
A .583 14.80
B .583 14.80
C R.151  
D .562 14.27
E .485 12.31
F 2.34 59.43
G .422 10.71
H 2.913 73.99
Max Case 2.913 73.99
Trim length 2.901 73.69

    Cartridge Bullet weight Muzzle Velocity
.470 Capstic (.475”) 500 2400
.470 Nitro Express (.475”) 500 2150
470 Capstic final.jpg
.470 Capstic Imperial Metric 
A .532 13.51
B .512 13.00
C .499 12.67
D 2.850 72.39
Max Case 2.850 72.39
Trim length 2.838 72.09

 470 Nitro Express.jpg
.470 NE Imperial Metric 
A .655 16.63
B .573 14.55
C 7deg  
D .531 13.48
E .504 12.80
F 2.40 60.96
G .750 19.05
H 3.25 82.55
Max Case 3.25 82.55
Trim length 3.23 82.25
    Cartridge Bullet weight Muzzle Velocity
.500 A-Square (.510”) 600 2500
.500 Nitro Express 570 2100
.500 Jeffery 570 2300
.50 BMG (.510”) 650
.50 BMG (Fast hand loads) 650

500 A-Square final.jpg
.500 A-Square Imperial Metric 
A .579 14.70
B .582 14.78
C 35deg  
D .568 14.42
E .536 13.61
F 2.480 62.99
G .393 9.98
H 2.900 73.66
Max Case 2.900 73.66
Trim length 2.888 73.36

500 Nitro Express final.jpg
.500 NE Imperial Metric 
A .655 16.63
B .574 14.57
C .532 13.51
D 3.00 76.2
Max Case 3.000 76.2
Trim length 2.988 75.9

500 Jeffery final.jpg
.500 Jeffery Imperial Metric 
A .575 14.60
B .619 15.72
C 20deg  
D .603 15.31
E .537 13.63
F 2.321 58.95
G .439 11.15
H 2.760 70.10
Max Case 2.760 70.10
Trim length 2.748 69.8

50bmg final.jpg
.50 BMG Imperial Metric 
A .804 20.42
B .804 20.42
C 15deg44’  
D .714 18.13
E .560 14.22
F 3.000 76.2
G .613 15.57
H 3.910 99.31
Max Case 3.910 99.31
Trim length 3.898 99.01

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